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Linux 2.2 Released 285

Ladies and Gentleman its that time again. Grab the shot glasses, or the champagne or a beer or a can of jolt and drink to Linux v2.2. Take that drink when you type 'make zImage' (or bzImage if you are so moved) and remember all the hackers that made it happen.
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Linux 2.2 Released

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  • by Anonymous Coward
    With so many mirror sites, I pray none of the
    trojan tcp-wrapper type of stuff happens with
    the Linux kernel. All that would be needed is
    one insecure ftp server. I'm glad that there is
    atleast a pgp signature with the new kernel.
  • by Anonymous Coward
    All of us with any ability to read code and write English (or the humaniod language of your choice, no discrimination here) need to start writing documentation. Nothing but praise for the LDP and everybody else who is working on it; it's just that we need more and better, and always will.

    I do not claim the ability to read code nor write any language, myself.
  • ...congratulate Linus et. al.

    Good work.
  • I heard somewhere that the kernel got large enough that you can't use "make zImage" anymore, only "make bzImage". Can anyone confirm this?
  • Hey everyone! I got Linux 2.2.0 from fast site IMHO. make xconfig works great, which is good because I heard that it didn't work so well in 2.1 and 2.2-pre. Got the ipchains, PnP support (is that working?), joystick drivers, AWE32 synth, the whole works. The compiling is doing great so far.

    I'll be writing a quick article on the release of Linux 2.2, along with some of the new features, and my experiences on 32 Bits Online ( I hope people will be able to get some useful information out of that. 32BO will also be hosting the kernel, although it'll probably be slow like most of the other servers. C'est la vie!

    Anyway, I'd like to thank everyone in Linux development for taking their time (especially the volunteers) to work on Linux 2.2.
  • After replying nicely to 90 emails that day about how patrick should move to libc6, you'd be pissed off, too. He gets angry about people emailing him to include qmail, too... he can't do it (licesning issues), and gets a zillion requests, and so gets rather angry.
  • ...

    Seriously, there are a few of us out here who don't have time to keep up with kernel development and can't afford the effort involved keeping up with all the versions. We trust the stable version.

    I need the fixes to the st driver's handling of EOD/EOT (hopefully it's fixed) so I can get some tape code working right.
  • linux-2.2.0.tar.bz2 [] for you all who can't find a mirror that has it or a site that's not saturated.
  • by Matrix ( 290 )
    The instant I finish upgrading to KDE 1.1pre2, kernel 2.2 comes out! And boy, that Magic SysReq looks like it will save me from asking my roommate if I can borrow his computer to telnet in and kill X.. :) What a glorious day...
  • Seriously. Go away.

    - A.P.

    "One World, One Web, One Program" - Microsoft Promotional Ad

  • Linux is a nice operating system, and this is an important release!

    Remember, FreeBSD 3.1-RELEASE on Feb. 15th 1999! :)

    And heck, everyone else is including theirs:

    FreeBSD 4.0-CURRENT FreeBSD 4.0-CURRENT #19: Mon Jan 25 21:15:50 EST 1999 DMAN i386
  • by sar ( 398 )
    anyone know of a mirror that has the diff? all the mirrors I've looked on had the tarballs of the source, but no patches. also, a ChangeLog?
  • ahh.. 2.2.0 and Dilbert blowing up a strip mall [] in the same night.. life is good.
  • Yes, Slackware 3.6 does have a package included in the distribution for glibc. I know this because I have a clean installation of it and it has glibc installed right on it. The only difference is that everything is still compiled against libc5, it's done as a compatibility measure (sort of like including libc4.. it's there in case anyone needs it).
  • Nobody better pick up the damn phone and kick me off. I need to move someplace where I can get a cable modem or ADSL (or is that ASDL, I'm too lazy to check). But if anyone's having troubles getting on the US mirrors like I was, I tried the Swedish mirror and got through pretty quick and have a decent connection (2.9K/s) for my modem.

    I'll check versions tomorrow to see if I need to upgrade anything else before compiling and installing the new kernel. I hope things go smooth.
  • Blastit, I can't seem to find any mirrors that have it... Guess I'll have to wait until tomorrow when everthing gets updated...

    Not until you get a First Commet :P.


    Not until you get a First Comment :P.

  • I compiled 2.2 last night on my RH 5.2 system with few extra RPMs (I threw in KDE) and everything worked fine. Didn't have to upgrade anything. But for some reason I can't get the fb working...
  • me some ADSL action happening at home now. The whole source took me about 5 min. to download. Woohoo! 2.2 bliss here I come!

    Damn! No beer! *sigh* I can't do a kernel without brews. Guess I'll have to wait till tomorrow. :(

    Oh well...Happy Kernel Day everybody!!!
  • I would put it on my xoom space, if I can get the damned thing. Mirrors are rather bogged of late.
  • Posted by Bill, the Galactic Hero:

    It really happened. After years of waiting, it really happened.

    Thanks to Linus, Alan, Dave, Ingo, etc. for putting so much work into it. I hope Linux goes up another 212% because of it.

    And you beat NT 5.0 !

  • Posted by e7k:

    It's 5:30 in the morning here in Poland and I'm drinking a toast with a glass of pure "dobrawa" mineral water. Long live Linus and the people, who made it happen! Long live Linux!!! :) *gulp* :)
  • Posted by OGL:


    The patch described on this thread is not good. The REAL patch is on this site [], as described on the linux-kernel mailing list.

    Happy compilations!

  • Posted by jonrx:

    Hello! He was referring to the 'magic' number 666. Go to your local videostore and rent Omen, for a clue! :)

  • Posted by Coogar:

    I'm happily running SuSE 6.0 in an English language installation. Don't want to second-guess the meaning of error messages that are totally clear in English... ;-)
    The printed documentation is in German, though.
  • Glibc has substantially better built-in threading support, among other things. Most importantly of all, it's portable.
  • Did you upgrade all the programs you're supposed to? Did you read the x11amp FAQ on that subject? Did you read about kmod? Or did you just spout off without thinking? "Nothing works" - what a sad joke you are. In the words of the ancient wise men: RTFM

    Linux 2.2.0 #1 Mon Jan 25 20:58:58 PST 1999 i686 unknown
  • Umm.. isn't kernel size kind of variable?

    Well, that depends on what you mean by variable. Varying over time is certainly not something good. :)
  • What drugs are you on? Yes, pgcc is experimental. So is egcs. If you demand proven, tested stability, stay with But I've used pgcc-compiled kernels for over six months now without a hiccup. If you want to comment, try to do so without all-caps, stupid abbreviations, and general h4x0r-d00d-sp34k. And non-x86 people can use pgcc, but patching to it from egcs is a complete waste of time as it will have no effect on anything that will be used on those architectures.
  • by Andy Dodd ( 701 )
    I remember once going on a trip to Washington, DC to hang out with friends. Total trip mileage at the end: 666 :)
  • I swear the Red hat site is designed to keep people from finding the packages they need....

    # find /dev/brain
    find: cannot open /dev/brain: No such file or directory
  • Thanks :)

    # find /dev/brain
    find: cannot open /dev/brain: No such file or directory
  • You should submit a bugreport (and a patch) til the linux-kernel mailing list.

  • ...burning those 6.0 international CDs until tonight. :-)


  • no joke:
    ~$ uptime
    7:25pm up 37 min, 3 users, load average: 1.02, 1.04, 0.91

    thats from compiling and rebooting to pre9, as I was out of town till yesterday night. now this. good news is that I got to it before the herds did. :)
  • Where are they?
  • Redhat 5.2 is supposed to be kernel 2.2 ready meaning that it has all the updated packages and is just waiting for you to install the new 2.2. Anyway if it didn't its very little trouble to go and get the new ones anyway. They are all listed in one of the documentation files.
  • Hmm. Wonder what IBM did to their box? I'm typing this on a Dual PPro-166 generic clone box running 2.2.0-pre6 and it had no problems at all.
  • Fine. Me too.

    The upgrade to 2.2 requires a good few changes to other programs and libraries, not just the kernel.

    I for one just can't be bothered, and I'll be waiting 'til a 2.2 based full distribution arrives.
  • It can even vary with time on a running kernel. Never heard of modules?

  • I opened up a beer!
    Sweatness... when is 2.3.x going to be out? =)

    Time to reboot with a new kernel... =)

    Thanks GNU community!
  • Personally, I've mailed Volkerding myself a few times, and he seemed quite nice. But I wasn't complaining about glibc2 (personally, I don't understand the attraction, and if I want glibc2, I can add it myself).


    Even if Slackware dies at 3.6, I'll continue using it because I like it. But this thread shouldn't turn into a distrib war (which it isn't yet, but I KNOW someone will go that route), but rather a celebration for a new era of sorts.
  • Ok, bigot was the wrong word... I guess evangelist or something... You get the idea..

    I'm not a developer or anything, and using Slack3.5, I have yet to run into a package I can't compile against libc5... I admit I don't compile much, and never have I tried anything blatantly glibc2 specific.

    I don't get it I guess. Is there any real technical flaws in libc5 that makes glibc2 a better choice, other than libc5 has been abandoned? Or is glibc2 just "Better, Faster, More"?

    Oh well... Maybe someday I will switch over to Debian, RedHat, Caldera, or one of the other glibc2-based distribs.
  • For Linux 2.2.0 hits the streets.

    I can't wait for a Slacware upgrade based around it (It's time for Slack4.0, featuring glibc2 [I'd like to see it, just to shut the glibc2 bigots up]).

    /me types make bzImage, hits enter, and takes a long drink from his Mountain Dew.
  • All the same, I think I'll wait a day or two for the inevitable 2.2.1. Even if it doesn't come out, it'll take that long just to get into one of the servers; even the Slashdot Effect pales in comparison to what this is likely to be :)
  • More important that being unbiased it to tell the truth. If some of the journalists had done even some basic research rather than base their opinions on what they heard their mate say after a few pints, then their work might actually be worth reading. Journalists shouldn't be expressing "their own opinions", just facts. Columnists are different, but even then you'd expect good research.

    The problem with the ZDnet editors is that they don't seem to have any quality control in place, so that blatantly unresearched, personal flames get published as though they were proper stories, and that's a shame. Some of their stories have been good, but they mix it in with such rubbish that it's hard to give them any credit.
  • Thanks a lot. Saves me a lot of effort of having to hack a fix.
  • At last, after 141 patches and more than two years, it's finally there. Now, should I stick to the 2.2 series or start using 2.3? Anyway, thank you all kernel hackers for a great job!
  • Erm.
    Bigotry has got nothing to do with it.
    Simply, libc5 was a library chain with a non-portable structure that was abandoned by its developers (a long time ago). Slackware, (my first distro), unwisely continued to build against this obsolete library long after its effective demise.

    BTW, I still keep my first Slackware CD's and my old Atari800 as momentos. I just don't use them.

  • If you have to ask this upgrade to 5.2 .
  • It really depend on how much you put in it. I haven't gotten a 2.0.x kernel to compile as a zImage for 6 months. The SMP support generally kills you. It's default in 2.2.0 .

    I tend to compile in to many filesystems and everything I might ever use as a module.
  • /usr/bin/host -l | grep us

    You can always substitute the "grep us" for "grep au" or whatever country you live in or remove it all together.. I do suggest grepping through, there are over 1400 sites listed.
  • My 386SX has over 1800 days uptime. It takes to long to compile a kernel, nearly 12 hours, so I don't want to upgrade.
  • Wouldn't it be alot faster if the big kernel releases were released via mail to a large number of mirrors first...or posted to newsgroups (although that might be kinda slow).

    or put it up on slashdot :-)
  • by ziffie ( 3139 )
    I bought a meal at Pizzeria Unos once and it totaled to $14.57.
    I gave the waitress a $2.25 tip.
    It was 1.5 miles from Circuit City.
    I am 19 years old.
    Coke costs 1.99 at basketball games.

  • was busy, so I got it from, just like the old days. 'Cept it went at 200k/s stead of 28.8kbps, I don't miss the dialup at all (I love college...).

    Of course, everything is whacked now. I'll need to reinstall egcs (I'm now gcc2.8.1 for computer game compiling reasons, grrrr) or gcc2.7 to build it.

    And find another working floppy (have yet to fix my lilo, too much trouble :) or risk screwing myself over and dump it on top of the old bootfloppy. prolly a bad idea.
  • glibc2 is supposedly better for multithreading. Although you can patch libc5 to do it, it won't be as solid or as fast. I've heard people say glibc2 is faster in other aspects as well. Other than that, it's just more modern and up-to-date and actively developed. Being libc5-only has been starting to cause me problems in the past few months, and I expect the problems will mount until I cave. Mixed systems have their own problems, though, so I'm gonna start over with a Debian system.
  • Don't forget the ipchains package if you do IP Masquerade. I couldn't find it anywhere obvious on redhat's site or So, I downloaded the Slackware 3.6 ipchains source and compiled it myself.


    Now we can add 2.2 party to the agenda next month at Long Island Linux Users Group [].

  • It is not. Check Documentation/Changes for full information. Also note that if you enable APM power-off that is triggered separately from a halt, and you need a newer SysVinit to do that.
  • The .sign file is right there... you can use it to verify with PGP or GPG. Disclaimer: I haven't verified anything yet (never felt the need before,) but with the recent trojan stuff, you can bet I'll figure out how to do that before this gets installed.

    What sucks is how anxious I am to see if my sound card works now (didn't w/2.1.125,) but I gotta wait till I get this done. Damn crackers. :(
  • ;-)
    Thanks Linus and all the comunity of hackers (not crackers) that give us this great kernel for free!
  • Very happy !
    ----------------------------------------------- ---------
    UNIX isn't dead, it just smells funny...
  • Mmmmm.

    Linux and single malt Scotch.

    Two great tastes that taste great together :-)
  • "Yes. It really happened."

  • My friend has an Alabama license plate that says THX-1138...
  • What happens if you make a bzImage when you should use a zImage?

    what happens if you make a bzImage on a small kernel?
  • it's coming soon . Supposedly there's a beta floating around. I got sick of using rh4.2 just for afs. I've been in version 5 for a couple of years now, and it's worlds ahead of the afs version.
  • My wording was a bit confusing there.

    What I meant was I have an installed, working copy of Redhat 5.1 - with that I need no help.

    What I meant to ask was how do I get Linux 2.2, compile it under Redhat, then replace the Redhat 5.1 build of Linux (Whatever version that is) with the newly compiled Linux 2.2?

    I take it to be easy, I am just a bit unclued :)

    Thanks in Advance!
  • I have a working install of Redhat 5.1. What do I need to do to obtain, compile and install it?

    Sorry, a bit of a clueless newbie here. :(
  • i'd just like to give another thanks to all the kernel hackers who worked towards 2.2, and all the slashdot readers who've been there. it's been a pleasure to learn linux with you all!

  • No point in making those...There's been so much changes made in 2.1... But I made the diff just for the fun of it...

    13:51:33-borut@/usr/src>ls -l diff.out

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root src 54837626 Jan 26 13:51 diff.out

    13:55:33-borut@/usr/src>du linux-2.2

    57088 linux-2.2

    So, you really gain nothing...

  • w00t!
  • I got the same error and recompiled after changing the sound/sb_ess.c as oer your suggestion. This time it compiled fine but system sounds is real choppy. The speed of the box seems better though.
    Thanks for your help anyway
  • Umm.. isn't kernel size kind of variable?
  • Yeah. Been waiting. Time to compile.
    There goes my uptime. Shit. A whole 3 days.
    Darn, as long as its stable and can give me a nice clean, fast kernel. Been using 2.2.0pre3 for a little over three weeks now without a burp, but I just gotta have the latest of everything, you know?
    Good job guys. Next month, I'll buy you all a drink.
  • []
    Get the kernel src here.
    I got both tar.gz n' bzipped.
    Get em' while they're hot.
    Avoid the usual places.

    I am not a complete mirror.

    c a l x
  • BTW, although not as slow as a modem, I am on a high traffic network. (A dorm to be precise.) ie. don't expect 256k/s d/l
  • []
    Another, faster, smaller mirror


    c a l x
  • When can we get K2.2 in source RPM?
  • by Mopar ( 9072 )
    Congrats, cheers too.
  • I should hope Linus will have *some* PnP support there. Between his charmingly antique theories on SMP (the BFL) and disdain of PnP yet wanting to take on the desktop, Linus sure seems to be a conflicted fellow.

    Maybe PnP can be a module. Have system calls to get the resources (IRQ, DMA) a device needs, and the module can use isapnp.conf or on the fly PnP or what have you. Of course this is pretty useless if it doesn't come with any distro, since no end-user is going to recompile their kernel if even modular support isn't included.
  • read the thread futher up!!!

    theres been a patch for this problem..

    also, If you dont have such a soundcard, then why not just use the config to remove the option of compiling it? (200x faster than opening a source file and deleting code!)

  • People who have been running through the 2.1.x series and following the trend shouldnt feel a big change with 2.2.x - thats true...but its the final released 'stable' version that will now go out with the dist. CD's.

    The *big* deal is the massive change between 2.0.x and 2.2.x, theres a HUGE number of great changes - my production Linux boxes are still running 2.0.36
    and it'll be great to get them up onto the
    2.2.x - but I'll do that properly with a full working distribution.

    At home, on the other hand, I will be upgrading
    my Amiga LinuxPPC to 2.2.x from its nice hacky 2.1.x

    the point being that without the work put into
    2.1.x development, I wouldnt be running LinuxPPC
    on my Amiga - THATS why 2.2.x is great news

    PS more people got excited by Win98 release - I dunno why, *they're* the saddos!
  • so does anyone have Linus' post to linux-kernel announcing this? I get the digest, but it wasn't on the one I got a few mins ago yet...
  • i just took a quick look at the diffs... some APIC changes for SMP, some driver updates, the vfat rename bug looks fixed, and one of the small mm diffs from linux-kernel got added (the one that said to bring mm performance back to 2.1.132 levels). now time to compile and run it :)
  • couldn't have said it any better myself :)
  • The PGP signature info is available from

    All the .sign files are from this signature.
    Any mirror's .sign file will work, so if you don't trust your good ol' local mirror, just grab a reliable .sign from another mirror.

  • If you can't trust the machine, which Linus controls, what machine can you trust. The signature on should be good enough. You could probably mail, the kernel mailing list and get someone to verify the signature for you.
  • I know I will probally sound like a complete fool, but what the heck is NUTTYX-2.2.0 and which 2.2pre whatever was it derived from? Other than changes to the documentation and some measures to fool uname, it would seem to be the linux kernel version 2.2 or so. If you have no idea what I'm talking about, information (well, very little) is at []. And yes, it does seem to have something to do with the ever popular Pokey the Penguin.

    It compiles and runs just fine, BTW...

  • > get linux-2.2.0.tar.gz

    Receiving file: linux-2.2.0.tar.gz
    100% 0 ==========================================> 13080195 bytes. ETA: 0:00
    linux-2.2.0.tar.gz: 13080195 bytes received in 1984.30 seconds, 6.44 kB/s.

    666K kernels. 1984 seconds to download. Be afraid. Be very afraid. :)

  • I didn't see the quote you mention above. The second article refers to a way of running Linux software under Windows NT.

    In my view, this misses the point completely. The reason Linux fans love the system is that (i) it's far more reliable then NT, and (ii) it's open source. Running Linux on top of NT would appear to totally eliminate both advantages.

    But then again, okay, I have a reason it might be useful. I have a machine running NT for consulting jobs. So if I want to browse the web, and look over my consulting work at the same time, I have to browse the web on the NT machine, something I consider to be very Politically Incorrect. With this product, in theory at least, I could put up a little X-session on my NT box and run Linux Netscape to browse the web while working in Word. Cute.

    Unfortunately, it costs almost $ 600 for the X11 version, which is about the price of a complete additional machine to dedicate to Linux. Oops.

    Worse yet, there's no downloadable demo (which I probably would have tried).

  • any rumors from MIT land?
  • Installing Glibc2 on Slackware is actually a lot easier than it sounds... as long as you follow the documentation and HOWTO's, and don't try anything funny (remember, the guys who wrote the documentation know a hell of a lot more about it than you do, so if you disagree with them, chances are they're right), it should work without any problems. The only strange thing that happens to me is that I get messages from ldconfig about libraries linked against multiple libc's (though when I run ldd, it only mentions libc6...), anyone know what that's all about?
  • In driver/sound/sb_ess.c, change the "extern int esstype" to "int esstype" and it should make OK.

  • Hey, has anyone had any serious touuble with the new kernel in a stock RH 5.2 system?

    (I'm trying to decide if I have enough free time to upgrade today...heh.)

  • It was a long time coming, but what we have now is perhaps one of the single greatest human achievements since walking on the moon :) Seriously, lets not bring the mirrors to their knees yet :)
  • I did exactly what you did and it went exactly as you describe it. I followed the HOWTO and everything works perfectly, except the noise ldconfig now makes:
    ldconfig: warning: /usr/lib/ appears to be for multiple libc's
    People out there who complaint that Slackware should use glibc2 should simply install it. :o)
  • FWIW, here's the md5sum on the version I just pulled from

    # md5sum linux-2.2.0.tar.bz2
    f03f54fcb774751f68f13df80af91256 linux-2.2.0.tar.bz2

    Mind you, I haven't verified the signature, but if you got it somewhere else and compared, we'd be doing better than nothing. :)

This login session: $13.76, but for you $11.88.