Though there are a variety of non-volatile phosphorus species (e.g. metal phosphides), the presence of phosphorus in the upper atmosphere of Solar System gas giants sufficiently indicates to me that in hydrogen-helium dominated systems, appreciable amounts of phosphorus would be available. Phosphorus might be a limiting nutrient in such an environment, but it is also in some terrestrial environments (that's why farmers apply "NPK" - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium - fertilizer by the tonne).
the hoopla over supposed replacement of it with arsenic in a certain bacteria has proven to be false.
That was indeed a false result.
Replace phosphorus with arsenic and you get dead organism.
That way of building life without phosphorus doesn't work. That is not a proof that no way of building life without phosphorus works. (But you'd probably have to do a lot more than just a straight swap of P for As.)
A FreeBSD-user since early 90-ies, I can only chuckle at the problems in the Microsoft world... But this:
"Worley built a Windows 7 machine for his grandfather, who has Alzheimer's Disease, [customized] to look like Windows XP, an operating system his grandfather still remembered well..." writes Digital Trends. "But thanks to Microsoft's persistent Windows 10 upgrade program, Worley's grandfather unknowingly initiated the Win 10 upgrade by clicking the 'X' to close an upgrade window."
got me thinking about the KDE-project, which blew away the existing KDE3-users, when introducing KDE4. Leaving us without an ugprade-path and forced to redo all of the customizations.
No, we weren't tricked into upgrading the way some MS-users were. But that's a rather thin defense for any software-maker, which simply discontinues older versions — forcing users to upgrade or remain open to security and other bugs.
Oceans have life at different layers, so why not gaseous atmospheres of varying densities?
Except for very temporary, small-scale local "inversions", the density of atmospheres increases as you descend into them. Same physics from 100-odd Kelvin (Jupiter cloud tops) to many thousands of K (O-stars).
OTOH, we still can't spontaneously make life in the lab YET
so we don't know all its secrets, and perhaps in reality, our knowledge is very limited (you don't know what you don't know).
We don't know what we don't know, but we do know what we do know in the laboratory - about how to construct enzymes and structures abiotically, in the beaker - and we do know what basal ("primitive") Bacteria and Archaea do in their metabolisms, and the gap is closing fast.
Speaking as a geologist with billion-year old fossils which I collected with my own hands, I'm more confident of seeing the biochemical gap closed than I am of a strong answer to the question "did life evolve a billion, or a half-billion, or a quarter-billion years after formation of the Earth?"
It's an interesting exercise in working out an environment, but TBH, far from my favourite bit of Niven. I can barely remember the plot(s), nor even if I've actually read more than a couple of the books.
Crown immunity, mate.
One of the reasons that some people want Britain to leave Europe. and on e of the reasons that some people want to leave Britain for Europe.
(I had to repair a 1950s Geiger counter once, which needed a 120V DC battery which fitted into the footprint of a square "lantern battery" - about 65mm square by 120mm tall. These batteries haven't been made since the 1970s, so I had to build a standard rechargeable battery and DC-DC step-up converter into that footprint. Using 1950s technology. Bloody "authenticity" nuts.)
Getting caught Carrying one of these into an airplane may get you a few years behind bars though, as they are close in design to a stun-gun.
Since it's full of RF-passive components (the design is inherently for a "physical access" attack, not a "remote access" attack), it's going to look like - a USB device full of blocky electronic components. Even on X-rays. So, you're down to having either a blanket ban on portable electronics air-side, or the judgement and experience of the security staff to recognise the "Chthulu-a-like" logo. So, no protection there then.
Scattering these in the taxi drop-off area of the airport - or even better in the smoker's corner - would provide plausible deniability for anyone caught carrying one. If Big Brother know that you actually brought one already
Quick look in my flying bag - 9 USB devices of different makes all broadly similar in design to this. Including a couple of USB GSM modems for different countries.
Actually, rigging up an adaptor to turn one of these into a stun-gun
That's the way it is being used, as a proxy for race.
So when the USofTrump introduces apartheid laws registering people into "black", "white" and "coloured" races, banning miscegenation, defining the amount of "blood" content before you move into a "lower" race (e.g. 1 part in 8, or 1 part in 16 for one non-white great grandparent or great-great grandparent ; not important for combinations not involving white majority), defining the physical characteristics for initial characterisation of the elderly (their descendant's races then being defined)
Anyway, once the racial apartheid laws have been passed, the fickleness problems of classification by religion simply won't be necessary.
I think they'll go directly to apartheid, and the "Muslim database" would simply become unnecessary. For example, Richard "Shoe Bomber" Reid would be prevented from flying for being 1 part in 2 black, not because of having converted to Islam in his 20s.
She didn't know how to navigate her car insurance and prove damages,
She was in a collision ; OK, fine.
She submits a claim for the damage to the vehicle and herself. Fine.
The insurance company will ask for supporting documentation - police crime reference (since a drunk driver was mentioned, which is a crime in most countries I've head of ; the crash and injury may or may not be a separate crime ; also "dangerous driving", "driving without insurance", "taking and driving away" ; whatever else in the case) ; possibly supervising physician's contact details (or whatever is equivalent in America) for the medical details ; possibly damage reports from the repairing garage (who wouldn't have done diddly-squat to the vehicle without communicating with the insurance company in writing).
I've never had to deal with an injury collision, but several other car crunches have come and gone. It's not exactly difficult. Where does the lawyer come into it?
chocolate in the UK has kinda lost it's taste for me.
UK chocolate lost it's taste for me as soon as I tasted chocolate from outside the UK. It really is "chocolate-flavoured mixed vegetable and milk fat solids," as the Daily Mail froths at the organ.
no, it doesn't now, and never really did, have more than a passing acquaintance with chocolate.
Even though it made me cringe a bit at the time it was still pretty funny. There are things that make you laugh that you can still regret laughing at...but that is where comedy can also educate and expose the unpleasant corners of a society
Personally, I'm still giggling over last night's James Bond spoof where the MegaSuper Agent is dispatched with all the weapons from Q-department encased in a dildo.
The price one pays for pursuing any profession, or calling, is an intimate knowledge of its ugly side. -- James Baldwin