Tariffs only hurt everyone involved.
The theory assumes proverbial spherical cows. You ignored my war scenario, for one. Going back to the Venezuela example, just because oil is currently your country's Comparative Advantage at a given point in time does not mean it will stay that way. If the bottom falls out of oil, your population starves. There's also the risk of financial bubbles due to uneven exchanges caused by imbalance.
And, tariffs are NOT the end-goal; but rather balance. Tariffs are an encouragement tool. Countries like China may loosen up imports or business regulation that previously made things hard on other countries' businesses. Right now it's too difficult to micromanage the barriers they put up. General tariffs would encourage them to loosen barriers on their own without an army of lawyers needed to sue away each and every barrier.