Alfie Kohn, in Unconditional Parenting, argues that focusing on behaviors is insufficient. You can teach a child that if he gets caught doing X, he'll get a spanking, consistently -- and he may avoid getting caught, yes, but this doesn't address the underlying intentions. Kohn isn't opposed to natural consequences (touch fire, get burned) but kids catch on when you punish coming-home-late with taking away desserts, or whatever. Yes, it's a consequence, but only by your decree, which breeds resentment. He describes this as "doing to" rather than "working with". He's a parent, I'm a parent, I watch plenty of other parents, and I see a tendency to treat the symptom rather than the cause, to punish kids for being inconvenient rather than teaching them to be consciously considerate. I see these kids get punished (and rewarded!) all the time, yet develop no empathy.
I catch flak from the older generation, that sees me as "giving in" to my child if I so much as ask her (let alone discuss!) what she wants or why she did what she did, or insist she get a turn instead of letting grown-ups drone on forever. I'm sure it looks like a lack of discipline, to their eyes. It's not what they were taught, no, but unlike their generation, I've felt no need for time-outs or spankings to make my child "behave". She's a high-energy child, not naturally "easy", but my goal isn't to have a picture-perfect, authority-revering doll. I want her to think and care about others, and she does. It all flows from there.
Someone, somewhere, might find the book interesting. I wouldn't suggest not reading it.