Qualcomm holds patents in all kinds of things. In 5G, it holds Standards Essential Patents in the Radio Access Network (RAN), modulation & waveforms, and core networking.
In RAN, centimetre wave (10GHz-30GHz) and millimetre wave (30GHz-300GHz) radio, beam steering or beamforming techniques, and massive MIMO IP are held by Nokia, Ericsson and Qualcomm.
In modulation, 5G requires non-orthogonal transmission schemes, rather than the OFDM of LTE-Advanced. Some schemes under consideration include Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC) transmission, Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) transmission and Generalised Frequency-Division Multiplexing (GFDM).
In networking technologies, Network function virtualisation (NFV) and software defined networks (SDN), Inter-Node Coordination and backhaul, Access Link Integration, Self Organising Network (SON) technology, Context Aware Networking, Information Centric Networking, not to mention good old WiFi. Nokia, Qualcomm, Cisco, Intel and Ericsson are the top IP holders.
The IEEE, like most SDOs do now, require RAND licensing of standards essential patents (SEPs). However the meaning of RAND has been changing over time (as companies discovered new ways to game the system, and SDOs responded).
jesus, i always just thought that was a dark line; now you're telling me it's the scar from that time when my vagina healed?
George Washington and his patriot army had mad ninja skillz.
They did. The old story goes that Ethan Allen was brought back to England as a prisoner in the Revolutionary War, he was housed with a English merchant who to goad the patriot put a picture of George Washington up in the outhouse. Much to the merchant's chagrin, Allen approved. "Nothing," Allen said, "will make an Englishman shit faster than the sight of George Washington."
That leaves Apple as the holdout supporting only codecs that require payment of a royalty to a patent pool.
Alternative, that leaves Apple as the holdout of supporting a codec whose intellectual property is not well understood, and might infringe on some submarine patents waiting to surface...
Well, the answer might be to try a morning cup of decaf coffee. Why? Because caffeine isn't the only active ingredient in coffee; the anti-cancer properties of coffee appear to be in the phenols which are still present in decaf. And you'd still get the stimulant benefits of caffeine because you're more sensitive, although I'd avoid even decaf after noon.
A cup of decaf coffee has between 2-10 mg of caffeine depending on the process; an ounce of dark chocolate has about 20 mg of caffeine; a twelve once coke has 34 mg of caffeine; a cup of regular coffee has 90-200 mg of caffeine.
Silly Anonymous Coward, Pizza is a VITAMIN!!!
Kill Ugly Radio - Frank Zappa