"1.the art or science of making practical application of the knowledge of pure sciences,...."
when such knowledge is available.
Engineers had to construct things before science provided any tools (like Romans built bridges, without stress analysis). Programming is a discipline where the practice is ahead of the theory, but I would still call it engineering.
The answer is "yes". Certainly at Google there are plenty of 40+ employees. At least in NYC, compared to a large bank, Google is a much, much nicer place to work.
This is wrong on so many levels. See this article by Paul Krugman.
Numeric stability is probably not all that important when you're guessing.