In true Slashdot fashion, I didn't read TFA just the TFS. Assuming that the source is capable (ie, did everything practical to disable telemetry, including any weakly published registry settings, etc) and is accurately counting firewall hits (how many of these are one telemetry source retrying relentlessly?) and not attempting to be an anti-MS shill, this really sucks that disabling it per MS instructions doesn't actually disable it.
That being said, does it affect functionality? Does stuff not work (for all definitions of not work -- from not all to pokey slow because it's trying and faiiling to hit a telemetry server)?
While I would expect corporations with an eye on security to object, I would also expect places like that to have a fairly stern outbound firewall policy and filtering system that would block a lot of telemetry by default, mitigating some of this but still not eliminating the annoyance of a machine that does what it wants.
I'm also curious how much analysis of telemetry has been done. Do we know what processes on the machine are responsible for telemetry, and are there any ways to disable them? Have the telemetry messages been analyzed to develop firewall rule groups to block them by IP, URL or DNS?