I don't like this subject because it tends to give my crazy libertarian bosses arguments a point of validity. Every time a contract comes up to bid the Minority Business Subsidies are used as a sticking point to force the admins, one of which is my boss, to bid lower on a contract then they would really want, or subcontract out to qualify for the contract. How you'd even account for this in any psudo "study" like this one is beyond me. The data's not easily accessible, and most people don't want to expose the back end of their bidding process to avoid a competitor figuring out how to undercut them. Personally I'd try to look at revenue by source per employee since Government contracts tend to lean more to the Minority Business Subsidies side of the equation, but even then that's not going to expose the White Men who had to bid lower just to get the contract. Unless you accept this study as such evidence, but that's why I don't particularly like these psudo "studies". You can always twist them to whatever you want them to be.