On the fringe you can add Monero
Fringe? IMHO, Monero is the Microsoft of second generation cryptocurrencies -- it's the big, slow, conservative choice of Cryptonote coins. For a leaner and generally more interesting alternative, have a look at Boolberry, but keep Monero in mind for long-term investment. (At the moment, a Monero node is taking over 14 GB of virtual memory on my machine, Boolberry "only" 4.)
It looks like the OP is a newbie to cryptocoins, so let me elaborate a bit. Traditional 'altcoins' are based on the Bitcoin codebase, so for things like proper anonymity, look for independently developed codebases such as Cryptonote (whose implementations include Monero and Boolberry) and Ethereum.
For mining profitability, Boolberry and Ethereum on GPUs are doing nicely at the moment, Bitcoin and Monero not so much. Of course, this may change rapidly and you need to do your homework. Good old bitcointalk.org is still a useful hangaround for learning about coins, though many notable coins have their own forums for more detail.
Bitcoin is still the gold standard in value of cryptocoins, technically viable and well accepted by merchants. Forget about mining it, but don't dismiss it otherwise. For example, the programming aspects of Ethereum were largely present in Bitcoin already, it's just that Ethereum takes these to the front stage and makes them easier to use.