Canada classifies guns into one of three categories: unrestricted, restricted, or banned. Unrestricted covers rifles and shotguns, as long as the barrel and overall gun length meet a minimum requirement, no large capacity magazines, and a few other restrictions. Handguns are restricted, as are a few long guns. Full-auto is banned. Anyone who wants to hunt is most likely to be using unrestricted firearms. These can be purchased by anyone with a Possession and Acquisition License, which you can obtain by taking a firearms safety course. Canada has no registry for unrestricted firearms, so the federal government has no way to track who owns them. There are separate courses for those who wish to acquire handguns, and there are much stricter laws governing carrying/storing/transporting restricted firearms.
These laws make sense here as Canada has a lot of wilderness and a pretty strong tradition of hunting. And they seem to be striking a decent balance, as we are on the lower end of gun violence stats.