"Do you think the same would hold true in the U.S. if a similar program was started?"
I don't think so. Simply because at very many places public transportation is almost non-existent. Granted, I have first hand experience only from 3 states, and second hand reports from 3-4 more, but what I see is some big cities have a somewhat acceptable public transport system, but most of them don't have any, or if they do have some, they only cover some select routes, they run very rarely, and have very small capacity. Plus, even in places where coverage seems acceptable, like maybe SF, the system couldn't handle even an increase of 10-20% (and you have to really think about peak hours), let alone most of the population.
Let's face it, most US cities, regardless of size, simply weren't built with public transportation in mind - and keep in mind, that the larger the city, the longer and the more lines we need, and travel times can be really long. Also, building a good public transport system in a city or region that doesn't have it, or only has bus lines, would cost so much (think under and over ground metro lines, tram lines, trollies), everyone would run away when hearing the costs. Plus, lots of people wouldn't use it even if their lives depended on it.