everything you've said is essentially backwards from how the economy really works. Today inflation is under 2%. Interests rates/risk-free rates are the lowest ever which businesses like. The federal government does not make up too much of the economy. Your statement must be qualified with regard to the strength of the private sector and foreign sector. During a recession or depression you want the federal government to be bigger. Today its not spending nearly enough and as a society we are losing in real terms while people like you work about a number on a spreadsheet.
As for your business partner example, the Federal government is not a business or a household. The Federal government is a sovereign issuer of the currency AND user of the currency, while state and local governments, businesses, and households are only the users of the currency.
The US Debt is a residual that has no economic meaning.
You understanding and application of CPI is completely wrong. It is not about what one single dollar can buy, but what all the dollars in a household can buy. In real terms, US households are far more wealthy today than in the early 20th century. No amount of dollars in 1920 could buy a telephone or electricity, or computers, or cheap high quality imports. The average US household went from spending over a quarter of its household income on food in the mid 20th century to less than 20% today. That is real wealth.