Quote: "For a company to engage in such blatant trickery, top executives must have been informed, said Guido Reinking, a German auto expert."
My opinions were formed partly from watching a PBS News video of a congressional inquiry. A congressman also strongly disagreed with the statements made by the Volkswagen regional subsidiary CEO. The problem is that CEO strongly denied that any managers could have been involved, not just him.
One problem is that none of the reports I've seen were written by technically-knowledgeable people.
Yes, there could be a mistake. Maybe no extra hardware was involved.