I wouldn't go so far as to predict a golden age. In fact I think overpopulation will be a problem in the future. Let me explain.
There have been numerous cycles of warm/cold periods in recorded history that we know about. Roman Warm Period, Medieval Optimum, Little Ice Age, and so on. We know that when the climate got warmer, we got longer growing seasons, more food was produced, populations grew, and nation-states grew in power. The reverse is true during the cold periods. Witness the blooming of grand Gothic cathedral building during the Medieval Warm period, which abruptly stopped when the Little Ice Age hit.
But all that was when the total global population was paltry. During the past warm periods, increasing arable land and and a growth in population was not a problem because the planet was so sparsely populated. Nothing but good came out of it. Today it's different. Modern technology has enabled 7+ billion people to live on the planet and we already have *too much* land under cultivation. Habitat destruction is a huge problem and pollution is an even bigger one. Humanity as a whole is not going to benefit from any further warming or population growth.
Furthermore, the areas that will benefit the most from continued warming are in places like Canada and Siberia where there the population isn't gonna increase (due to societal habits) no matter how much food you can grow there.
If I'm sounding like a weird combination of green conservationist and a AGW skeptic, well I guess that's because that's what I am. You can care about the environment and want to save endangered species and conserve natural habitats and limit population growth, while still having enough sense to see through the climate change / cap and trade bullshit.