The situation in most of the USA is that it's been done using the worst possible mixture of laissez-fair capitalism and central planning. Vast amounts of taxpayer money have been poured into the infrastructure, yet that infrastructure is owned by a few companies and they have geographical monopolies and are now owned by their customers, so have no incentive to improve it. Oh, and regulator capture means that it's actually illegal to fix the problem in a lot of places. You can provide an incentive in several ways:
- Tax penalties or fines for companies that don't improve their infrastructure. Big government hammer, and very difficult to enforce usefully.
- Try to align the ownership of the companies with their customers. Companies have to do what their shareholders want and if their shareholders want them to upgrade the network because they're getting crap service then they will.
- Ensure that there's real competition. This is difficult because it's hard to provide any useful differentiation between providers of a big dumb pipe and the cost for new entrants into the market is very high.