Published on /. yo.
The Unmoved Mover: the premise that there must be one is incorrect. Physics shows the need for a static frame of reference to be utterly spurious.
First Cause: the premise is incorrect. Physics shows that many different types of system (biome, ecosystem, stellar system, ...) are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating. Avoiding the myth of perpetual motion, the only "First Cause" is the Big Bang, and the more we understand about it, the less it looks like a singular event. Turtles all the way down, brah.
Contingency: The world will end. Some of the earlier understandings of the Big Bang pointed to a "Big Crunch", but the most recent understandings make it look less likely.
Degree: Physical measures do indeed have a zero, and a maximum (including infinity). Unmeasurable social constructs such as goodness, truth, nobility, are indeed described by degree. The only absolute truths are removed from language, and distilled into comparisons of real things against a corresponding theory; (e.g. the reference kilogram, the boiling point of water). The only absolute nobility is nothingness because everything else reacts in some way.
Teleologicality: This is a nonsense formed on the incorrect assumption that systems are impossible without oversight: the tree falling in the forest.
That was easy. I find it hard to believe these haven't been debunked before in even briefer, more conclusive terms.