Fair enough. I was working from memory, couldn't remember where intercity busses fit in the mix and was too lazy to try to find it. I stand corrected. The TRBs TCRP 79 reports the average energy consumption for intercity buses as 713 BTU/(passenger mile). As such, the revised hierarchy ought to be:
- 1. Bicycles,
- 2. Walking,
- 3. Intercity passenger busses,
- 4. Planes,
- 5. Long-haul passenger trains,
- 6. et c.
In the end, I don't know if your Peltier aircon would be more efficient or not, compared to a mechanical one
Not. The main advantage of a peltier cooler is its size. You can force quite a lot of heat transfer in a small space without the compressor, fans and radiators necessary for a heat pump.
Probably not*. The "old asphalt roads" are 90-96% aggregate (rocks). The asphalt is really just a flexible binder for the harder stuff. Also, the lighter volatiles have long since evaporated from the asphalt cement, so it won't readily light. Come to think about it, the asphalt cement is, cut with water, emulsifiers and other additives to improve application and durability.
*I did some calculation to determine the heat content of asphalt concrete roads as compared to wood, and I've decided that both may be useful, depending on context:
- 1. Decent hardwood (think birch, not hickory) has a comparable Btu content as asphalt concrete:
- --Seasoned Birch: 6.95 kBtu/lb, 162.5 kBtu/ft^3 (these are based on cord density, not wood density);
- --Old Asphalt Road: 8.82 kBtu/lb, 64.9 kBtu/ft^3 (based on in-place density, 5% cement content & 30% additive content).
- 2. I will guess that wood will release the heat more quickly, while the aggregate in asphalt concrete will store heat and release it slowly over time.
- 3. Wood and "old roads" will require approximately the same handling. The wood needs to be cut, split and stored while the asphalt needs to be broken up, then the (potentially useful) aggregate will need to be (re)moved.
- 4. The asphalt cement will need an existing hot fire to start. The ignition temperature of asphalt is ~900F, so the entire mass including the aggregate will will absorb a great deal of heat before it starts contributing anything.
- 5. profit?
I set out to demonstrate that your comment wasn't very useful, but it looks like old asphalt roads may, in fact, be useful for keeping warm, with the caveat that some other material will be needed to start (and maintain) an asphalt concrete fire.
Nobody drives between Los Angeles and Anchorage, except as a road trip just to say they did it.
I've driven between Los Angeles and Fairbanks three times, plus three other trips including one from Austin, TX to Anchorage, AK. Not a single one of the trips was a tourist jaunt. There's also freight that comes up the Alaska Highway.
I didnt see ay mention of moonquakes.
Did you read the paper? They didn't model any seismic activity, nor did they model any confining stresses. As such, their:
failure values are slightly conservative (i.e. low in magnitude) in order to compensate for [their] not modeling other stress sources such as seismic shaking from meteorite bombardment.
The point of the exercise was to theoretically confirm that large lava tubes can exist because:
Recent in-depth analysis of lunar gravity data from the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft has suggested the possibility of lava tubes on the Moon with diameters in excess of 1 km.
I've been using CFLs and flourescents for 20 years, but continued to use incandescents in a few places because my Mrs. didn't approve. I've managed to win her over with LEDs, though. For the last few days, I've been contemplating whether to replace the vanity light with bulbs similar to those mentioned in the article, or to purchase an LED fixture.
Alaska has local option for alcohol imports*. Many of the villages ban it, but many still see a steady flow of booze. It would be impossible to control alcohol movement into villages if it could be smuggled in small sachets.
I'm not trying to run down that Alaska is dangerous, as I've certainly known people maimed or killed by cold or bears.
*For many of the villages, anything they don't make or harvest locally is brought in by barge, plane or barter with other villages 10s of miles away by trails. Much of Alaska has no connection to the road network.
Until four years ago, I worked in Los Angeles as a traffic engineer. The ATSAC system is used on more than 4,000 intersections, is interconnected, and makes adjustments to signal timing either manually or automatically. There aren't cameras at all of the monitored intersections, but you don't need cameras to measure traffic volumes and speed, they're just an additional tool.
Further, the systems that use cameras for vehicle detection are falling out of favor. There are too many conditions, such as rain, snow, fog and bright sunshine that can befuddle the systems and cause them to fall back to pre-set timing rather than relying on vehicle detection. Where inductive loops aren't used, radar is proving to be more reliable than cameras.
Even where there's no interconnection, most intersections have controllers that are considerably more sophisticated than simple timers.