He was supposed to be using hab material (and later they showed the same stuff as hab material) not just polyethylene. Also, he used some aviation tape (my guess from visual, it wasn't duct tape) which would be stronger tape than the duct tape he uses on his facemask.
However, when a scene later the dust storm is blowing the patch in and out...yeah...not possible. The atmosphere isn't that much to be able to invert the patch, or make it flap in the wind.
The hab is supposed to be made out of a laminated fabric with rigid metal ribs, it isn't 3" thick at all, and was actually the reason for the airlock failure in the book (the pressure cycling was WAY more than design, and caused a slowly spreading rip to form which then failed catastrophically).