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Comment: Re:Antipodal eruptions (Score 2) 60

by Convector (#48641865) Attached to: Massive Volcanic Eruptions Accompanied Dinosaur Extinction

I've never found the antipodal argument convincing. Seismic waves converge at the antipode of an impact only if the target is spherically symmetric and isotropic. In the actual Earth, you have reflections off all kinds of laterally varying boundaries. Also, the sound speed differs substantially between continental and oceanic crust, so the path matters quite a bit.

The Chixulub impact is also not that big (as planetary-scale impacts go). The projectile was what, 10 km? Shock heating is only significant within a few times the projectile diameter.

Comment: Phase I study (Score 1) 79

It's not clear from the summary (or the linked article), but this isn't a mission at this point. This is a concept selected for Phase I study.

From the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) news release:
"NIAC Phase I awards are approximately $100,000, providing awardees the funding needed to conduct a nine-month initial definition and analysis study of their concepts. If the basic feasibility studies are successful, proposers can apply for Phase II awards, which provide up to $500,000 for two more years of concept development."

This effort is independent of the ongoing Europa mission studies (e.g. the Clipper concept.) The Draper concept may end up getting a mission if the results prove promising. Personally, I have doubts that this will prove credible, but that's the whole point of the NIAC studies.

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