To address your other points, felons have been denied some rights by due process (legal), children and the insane have been deemed not fully responsible for their actions and thus do not have all associated rights.
If you'd read the Federalist papers to see what the founders thought the 2nd amendment should represent, you would understand that it meant that the individual should be able to possess the same arms that any individual in the military could have - the rationale being that individuals would always greatly outnumber a standing army. Thus the only thing on your list that would be inappropriate would be the nuke (and in case you didn't know, fully automatic weapons aren't illegal under federal law).
That's it. That's all you need the government to do relating to work. Why else you would need to do anything? If you aren't earning enough, you go on strike or you quit. A business can't run with no employees, so eventually an equilibrium price for your labor is found.
There is no right to drive a car on a public road (it's a privilege), and you are allowed to drive a car on your own property without insurance.
"We learn from history that we learn nothing from history." -- George Bernard Shaw