On a 2GB RAM / 32 GB storage cheap Windows laptop, I have found that Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) works fine and I would prefer it to full emulation given the limited amount of RAM available. For 150GBP, I have got a 1kg "disposable" notebook with a small form factor, decent keyboard and 10hrs battery life. I used to have a chromebook for that purpose, but I had to flash its firmware and hardware support wasn't perfect.
As a C++ development environment, you get the usual console tools (vim, git, cmake, gdb, ecc...), but g++ is quite old (4.8) which basically means C++11. Installing clang-3.8 from the repository worked, but I personally had dependency problems when I tried to install libc++. Good C++14 language support with poor C++11 standard library support works fine for me, so I didn't bother to try to solve the issue.
A problem I did not expect is the inability to access removable MicroSD from WSL, so you should be aware of that.
I am looking forward for when Ubuntu 16.04 will be available outside the insider program, so I can get an hassle-free, modern C++14 environment out of the box.