We cannot force other governments to pay but when can offer incentives. The US could come to an agreement with as many other governments as possible to implement a steadily increasing carbon tax. We could use the money raised to give tax relief to the 1% to appease the right wing or to give subsidies to those hurt by the tax to appease the left wing or whatever was needed to get it passed. An import duty would be charged on the carbon content of any imports into participating countries of twice the current carbon tax rate with an allowance given for any taxes levied in the exporting country.
I realize this is never going to happen, not when a significant minority in the US thinks climate change is a hoax and the chairman of the Senate's Environment and Public Works Committee can prove it by throwing a snowball on the Senate floor.