Yes, they need to know how to read, write, type, and do math, but this question was about computers.
Students should know how to convert base-10 numbers to binary.
They should understand how to map a character set to binary.
They should understand how to add two numbers in binary and then--time permitting--learn about AND/OR/XOR gates.
They should understand the concepts of CPU/memory/bus/network/storage and transferring data over a wire.
They should understand that a network can be wired or wireless.
They should understand what a cloud computing facility looks like and how their files get to/from it.
After the above, given time, you can teach them enough so they can decide whether or not they want to pursue a degree in computer science. This might include parsing a language by hand, talking about simple algorithms and algorithmic complexity, introduction to the Turing machine and computability, and maybe some simple data structures like arrays and linked lists.
Each of the above concepts can be absorbed and exercised in a week.
p.s. "Computability" was not in my Chrome dictionary. Sheesh!