Dude, my job is doing thermal testing on spacecraft. I can tell you thermal design involves just slightly more than "wrapping a mylar blanket around it".
Also, the fact that rocket stages and habitats are both in some sense metal boxes does not in any way imply they are therefore interchangeable. Both are highly specialized parts that have very different goals. Rocket stages simply cannot afford all the extra weight necessary for them to function as a habitat (life support equipment, solar cells, meteorite shielding, access hatches, equipment for the astronauts to do useful work with, etc.). Besides, the biggest (lower) stages never make it into orbit anyway (only the top stage does, and why do you think that is?). The top stage is typically quite small. It's also not just a hollow shell; inside are multiple tanks (for fuel and oxidiser), the engine itself, pumps, electronics, etc. You'd have to remove all that.
So let's say you want to add all the necessary equipment later. How is it going to get into orbit? For that you need _another_ launch! And then you need to do a hell of a lot of precision engineering in one of the most hostile environments known to mankind, just to remove the old contents of the stage, and replace it by new contents which you might as well have launched ready to use from Earth (the weight is going to be the same, whether you pack it up tightly or not, after all).
You also have to come up with a plan to get rid of any remaining fuel. If it's hydrazine (not uncommon on upper stages), that's pretty toxic, and no, you cannot just open the hatch and hope it disappears into space.