My wife and I recently had a baby in Texas and found out about this. The blood sample is taken by pricking the babies heel 24 hours after birth and placing five drops of blood on a five panel card. The state of Texas requires that the samples be sent to a state lab and screened for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, phenylketonuria, sickle-beta thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and sickle-hemoglobin C disease (http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/LAB/nbs_article.shtm). Luckily they give you a form you can fill out when you leave the hospital to request the state to destroy the sample after their screening. There seems to be some personal information attached to the sample so that the state can link it back to the hospital record should they detect something. They don't appear to be able to match the sample to a SSN# because that doesn't get issued to the baby until several weeks later. I made sure to fill out the form and mail it in but there doesn't seem to be any way to tell if they really destroyed the sample or not. By not filling out the sample destruction request form you give the state permission to do what ever they want with it but they are supposed to remove any identifying information if they give the sample to a third party.