The other is Analog microphones + digital effects & synths -> digital recording -> analog recording -> conversion to voltages which are amplified -> conversion to speakers which move your ears
Honestly, as long as the digital sample rate is high enough (these days, it always is) and you listen to the record on a quality hi-fi, and you take care of your records, then you aren't losing anything, except convenience. But yeah, you aren't really gaining anything either, unless you count the ability to do record-scratching (which can also be done digitally) and being more forced to listen to a whole side of a record before flipping it or changing records, instead of the modern ease of the "next track" button.
By all means, go buy an original vinyl album in good condition instead of a "Remastered anniversary edition", where, yeah, they tend to compress the mix and amplify the result. Or go buy a vinyl album because you are a DJ who actually knows how to spin vinyl. Or shit, go buy vinyl because you're nostalgic for the way things used to be, if that's what you're in to. But don't buy vinyl because you think it's gonna sound better than digital. That is, unless you group together the hiss of a low-quality hi-fi setup, and the clicks and pops from mishandling an record over time somehow improve the sound. And even if you do want that, There's an App for That.
Heuristics are bug ridden by definition. If they didn't have bugs, then they'd be algorithms.