The article claims that in 2017, about 600k deaths are project in the US due to cancer.
According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/..., the population of the world around 3000 BC (assuming this is roughly the Mesopotamian era) was about 14 million.
600k in a year back then would be roughly 4% of the population. This seems very unlikely. If you accept the premise that we are surrounded by carcinogens moreso today than back then, you would expect the cancer death rate to be lower back then. I would also suspect that other forms of death would be more prevalent than cancer.