I managed to track down the actual text of the cases. TFA was only adding the human doctors to an analysis already done with the aps. The aps paper is http://www.bmj.com/content/351... and the cases are in the supplementary material ('data supplement') http://www.bmj.com/highwire/fi...
A 48-year-old woman with a history of migraine headaches presents to the emergency room with altered mental
status over the last several hours. She was found by her husband, earlier in the day, to be acutely disoriented and
increasingly somnolent. On physical examination, she has scleral icterus, mild right upper quadrant tenderness, and
asterixis. Preliminary laboratory studies are notable for a serum ALT of 6498 units/L, total bilirubin of 5.6 mg/dL, and
INR of 6.8. Her husband reports that she has consistently been taking pain medications and started taking additional
500 mg acetaminophen pills several days ago for lower back pain. Further history reveals a medication list with
multiple acetaminophen-containing preparations.
(This one is acute liver failure requiring emergency care).
An 18-month-old toddler presents with 1 week of rhinorrhea, cough, and congestion. Her parents report she is
irritable, sleeping restlessly, and not eating well. Overnight she developed a fever. She attends day care and both
parents smoke. On examination signs are found consistent with a viral respiratory infection including rhinorrhea and
congestion. The toddler appears irritable and apprehensive and has a fever. Otoscopy reveals a bulging,
erythematous tympanic membrane and absent landmarks.
(Acute otitis media - requires 'non-emergent care', i.e. needs professional medical care but is not an emergency)
A 34-year-old woman with no known underlying lung disease 12-day history of cough. She initially had nasal
congestion and a mild sore throat, but now her symptoms are all related to a productive cough without paroxysms.
She denies any sick contacts. On physical examination she is not in respiratory distress and is afebrile with normal
vital signs. No signs of URI are noted. Scattered wheezes are present diffusely on lung auscultation.
(Acute bronchitis, self-care appropriate.)