Well, frankly, I don't understand it either. You're applying information theory to lines of code
Kurzweil doesn't advocate the use information for understanding or modeling the brain. He only used it in combination with other methods to get an estimate on how complex the brain actually is (whether his methods and estimates are correct I can't tell).
That was, imo, the whole point of the paragraph you quoted
address space layout randomization I though this was a feature in OS X 10.5? Was it not implemented or just not implemented as well as other OS's? I remember hearing about it as a feature for 10.5.
Two years ago, Miller and other researchers criticized Apple for releasing Mac OS X 10.5, aka Leopard, with half-baked ASLR that failed to randomize important components of the OS, including the heap, the stack and the dynamic linker, the part of Leopard that links multiple shared libraries for an executable.
Real Users find the one combination of bizarre input values that shuts down the system for days.