Of course Amazon sells it using the DARPA developed internet
For which, I assume, they pay money to access just like you do.
and ships it on public roads
No, Amazon uses a carrier (as you state in your next phrase). This carrier uses public roads, I would assume. This carrier also, I assume, pays for the fuel used to power its fleet of vehicles, as well as any tolls that might be encountered. These pay for the roads.
often using the US Postal Service
And? I would assume that they pay for postage, just like anyone else who wants to ship a package.
They hire programmers who were educated in public schools and at public universities.
Some (probably most) were, certainly; but what does this have to do with anything? This is true of every business. Should a company in Montana pay taxes to California because one of its employees was educated at UCLA?
When they're worried about competition, they sue their competitors in Federal Court, often over patents issued by the USPTO. Their facilities are protected from crime by publicly funded police and from foreign invaders by the US military. If one of their buildings catches fire, it will be put out by publicly funded fire fighters. That's a developed world lifestyle, and it's made possible by the continuous effort of a capable government.
I'm not going to address the rest of the points directly, simply because I don't want to repeat myself. Local businesses collect sales taxes because the state, county, city, or other regional authority imposes them for services provided by that authority. The things you mention like firefighting would be carried out by the authority in whatever location that Amazon has a physical presence, where they already collect sales taxes. The rest of the services are federal, for which Amazon pays corporate income taxes, as do the customers who purchase items from Amazon. Amazon does not make use of any local services in areas where it does not have a physical presence, so there's no justification for making them collect the taxes.
Note that sales tax is a tax on the consumer, not on the business. The only distinction here is that businesses with a physical presence are required to collect and pay the sales tax on behalf of the customer, whereas other businesses are not; in these cases, the customer is legally required to report and pay this sales tax as part of their ordinary taxes. No, nobody does that, but that's the way it works.
Beware of all enterprises that require new clothes, and not rather a new wearer of clothes. -- Henry David Thoreau