writes "A question for all those slashdot math-geeks out there: What's the simplest, but most secure encryption algorithm you can devise or provide a link to that can be carried out with nothing but a pen, some paper and a calculator? Bonus points for any public-key cryptography solutions!"
Bruce Schneier developed an encryption algorithm designed to be performed with a deck of cards
, but it's rather slow to do for fun. Well, you did say "a calculator", and if we assume a programmable calculator your options probably expand quite a bit...