There are differences, but the crucial similarity is that both involve vying for effectively finite resources. Labor, food, land, water, air, etc. are all tied together. There are limiting factors to growth. True, you can work around some limits with technological development, but technological development is not guaranteed. Eventually you run out of resources (more accurately you saturate their potential for usage, or, probably even more accurately, you super-saturate their potential for usage and that supersaturation catches up with you catastrophically).
Come to think of it, the difference between those situations is really that one can basically be a superset of the other. More humans born means more humans needing to buy IP addresses with the additional money being printed. The trouble is, the actual supply is fundamentally limited. Still, there is a critical difference. A new ip address paradigm can basically be waved into existence. The resources that limit overall growth are a lot harder to magically either make more of or make more available.