what does it mean to publish? Certainly, google translate *transforms* text, but it is only doing a transformation, it is neither "publishing" nor is it "making available". If google translate made available a document that was not otherwise available then that would amount to publishing. What they do is not publishing.
Although some authors try, they have no legal grounds for dictating how something they publish is consumed. For example, I might read a book in a silly voice. This definitely offends some overly sensitive authors, but they have no legal grounds for preventing me from doing so. A translation is, in a legal sense, a mechanical transformation. Its purpose is to not alter, but rather preserve, meaning and intent. It does not creatively alter the original and so is less affecting than reading a book in a silly voice. Historically, "translation" has gone hand-in-hand with publication -- after all, why would someone go to the effort of translating a work without securing the right to publish it and benefit from those sales?
When you say "how can this [tool] exist" you only specify google tools. If you are intending to refer to the blog posting then if the images are in fact copyrighted then it would be up to the copyright holder to take legal action to enforce their rights. They are under no obligation to do so, much less any other entity.
You are also assuming that everything is "protected" by copyright, but this is not the case. There's this thing called "the public domain". Now, true, it is small and growing only ever so slowly, but it does exist. In particular, in the US if the government produces something on the public dime then it is in the public domain. Well, I suppose it can get complicated, but that is a basic premise. And, while credits are listed for photographs in the blog post, there is no indication of copyright. That does not mean the photos are not copyrighted, but it does provide anyone offended by their republication the opportunity to notify the creator.
In short: not everything is under copyright "protection" and for those that are the "protection" largely consists of publication and redistribution (the right to copy), not for how it is presented (whether that is read in a silly voice or something else).