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+ - Second-Hand Smoke Increases Risk of Hearing Loss->

Submitted by suckhoenct
suckhoenct (1941488) writes "Researchers from the University of Miami and Florida International University suggest, in their study published in the journal Tobacco Control, that second-hand smoke can increase one’s risk of hearing loss. It’s known that active smoking can have effects on hearing because chemicals produced by cigarettes and absorbed in the blood stream can disrupt blood flow in the small vessels of the inner ear. But, this is the first time that an association between second-hand smoking and hearing loss has been found. By looking at hearing test results of 3,307 non-smoking volunteers – some who were ex-smokers and some who had never smoked in their lifetime – and measuring blood levels of cotinine, a byproduct of nicotine, the researchers found that passive smokers increased their risk of hearing loss across all sound frequencies by about a third."
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+ - SPAM: Can the Sun's Siblings Be Found?

Submitted by suckhoenct
suckhoenct (1941488) writes "Imagine trying to organize a nursery school reunion by visiting retirement homes throughout the country. là ging nh các thách thc 'i u vi nhà thiên vn hc ngi tìm kim các ngôi sao sinh ra cùng vi mt tri. That's akin to the challenge confronting astronomers who seek the stars born alongside our sun. Bây gi các nhà nghiên cu ti Nga cho rng nhim v cho anh ch em rut ca mt tri s còn khó khn hn bi vì cánh tay xon c ca di Ngân hà £ tung các ngôi sao n và fro. Now researchers in Russia say the quest for the sun's siblings will be even harder because the Milky Way's spiral arms have tossed the stars to and fro.

Mc dù sinh ra tinh vân mt tri 4,6 t nm trc y là £ qua lâu ri, hu ht các nghìn, hay nh vy sao sinh ra trong cùng mt cm nên £ sng sót. Although the nebula that spawned the sun 4.6 billion years ago is long gone, most of the thousand or so stars born in the same cluster should have survived. Nhng ging nh mt git thuc nhum màu ném vào i dng, nhng ngôi sao ni lên thành mt 'i t£ng-mt thiên hà khng l hàng trm boasting t ngôi sao khác. But like a drop of red dye thrown into the ocean, those stars emerged into an enormous object—a galaxy boasting hundreds of billions of other stars.

Tuy nhiên, nm ngoái nhà thiên vn hc Simon Portegies Zwart ca i hc Leiden Hà Lan tuyên b rng các nhà khoa hc có th có th tìm mt tri ca các anh ch em rut. Nevertheless, last year astronomer Simon Portegies Zwart of Leiden University in the Netherlands claimed that scientists might be able to find the sun's siblings. Ông tính toán nh th nào các ngôi sao phân tán khi chúng xoay quanh trung tâm ca thiên hà và c tính có t 10 n 60 ca h cn c trú trong vòng 330 nm ánh sáng ca trái ¥t. He calculated how the stars dispersed as they revolved around the galaxy's center and estimated that between 10 and 60 of them should reside within 330 light-years of Earth. khong cách , mt ngôi sao sunlike có th nhìn thy qua ng nhòm. At that distance, a sunlike star is visible through binoculars. sao nh vy s chia s tui ca mt tri, thành phn hóa hc, và chuyn (TM)ng trong không gian, và có th cung cp cái nhìn sâu sc vào s ra i ca h thng nng l£ng mt tri. Such stars would share the sun's age, chemical composition, and motion through space—and might give insight into the birth of the solar system.

Nhng nhà thiên vn hc Yury Mishurov ca Liên bang Southern University Rostov-on-Don, Nga, £ không tin rng anh ch em rut ca mt tri s rt d tìm. But astronomer Yury Mishurov of the Southern Federal University in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, was not convinced that the sun's siblings would be so easy to find. "Tôi ngh rng mô hình [Portegies Zwart này] £ á£c oversimplistic, bi vì ông £ không tính n tác (TM)ng ca cánh tay xon c," có th sao qung ra xa và rng vi lc hp dn ca h. "I thought that [Portegies Zwart's] model was oversimplistic, because he did not take into account the effects of spiral arms," which can fling stars far and wide with their gravity. Vì vy, Mishurov và nhà thiên vn hc Irina Acharova, cng ca i hc Liên bang min Nam, chy các mô phng máy tính theo mô hình mt cluster ca các ngôi sao quay quanh trung tâm ca thiên hà. So Mishurov and astronomer Irina Acharova, also of the Southern Federal University, ran computer simulations that modeled a cluster of stars orbiting the galaxy's center. Các mô phng theo dõi anh ch em rut ca mt tri khi i qua trong và ngoài ca cánh tay xon c ca thiên hà hn 4,6 t nm. The simulations tracked the sun's siblings as they passed in and out of the galaxy's spiral arms over 4.6 billion years.

"Các ngôi sao phân tán trong mt không gian rt rng," ông Mishurov. "The stars dispersed in a very broad space," says Mishurov.

Trong mt s mô phng, các ngôi sao truyn dc theo mt qu o toàn xung quanh trung tâm thiên hà. In some simulations, the stars spread along a full orbit around the galactic center. Trong nhng trng hp này, ba hoc bn ngàn sao vn trong vòng 330 nm ánh sáng ca trái ¥t. In these cases, just three or four of the thousand stars remained within 330 light-years of Earth. "Chúng tôi không th nói rng nó là hoàn toàn không th tìm thy anh ch em rut, nhng nó là mt nhim v rt khó khn", ông Mishurov, ngi có công vic s xut hin trên s ti ca Thông báo hàng tháng ca Hip hi Thiên vn Hoàng gia. "We cannot say that it is absolutely impossible to find siblings, but it is a very difficult task," says Mishurov, whose work will appear in an upcoming issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Portegies Zwart nói rng ông hoan nghênh các nghiên cu mi. Portegies Zwart says he welcomes the new study. "Mc dù h có v á£c khá quan trng ca công vic trc y ca tôi, tôi khá hài lòng vi n phm này," ông nói. "Even though they seem to be quite critical of my previous work, I'm pretty happy with this publication," he says. "y là bc hp lý tip theo", bi vì nó s dng mt mô hình phc tp ca thiên hà bng cách kt hp các cánh tay xon c ca nó. "It was the logical next step," because it uses a more sophisticated model of the galaxy by incorporating its spiral arms. "Cui cùng, tt nhiên, nhng gì á£c tính là có hay không chúng ta s tìm thy nhng anh ch em mt tri. Tôi ngh rng là mt sai lm ln f cho lên tìm kim chúng." "In the end, of course, what counts is whether or not we will find the solar siblings. I think it's a big mistake to give up looking for them."

Gerard Gilmore nhà thiên vn hc ca i hc Cambridge ti Vng quc Anh không phi là quá chc chn. Astronomer Gerard Gilmore of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom is not so sure. Mc dù ông tha nhn s quan tâm sinh (TM)ng trong ch này, ông nói rng c cho anh ch em tìm kim nng l£ng mt tri là không rõ ràng. Although he acknowledges the lively interest in the topic, he says the whole search for solar siblings is dubious. Vic xác rng mt ngôi sao có chính xác tui ca mt tri là không th, ông nói, và nhiu thành phn không liên quan sao phn hóa hc ca nó. Ascertaining that a star has exactly the sun's age is impossible, he says, and many unrelated stars share its chemical composition. "Tht không khó f tìm thy mt danh sách các ngôi sao ging nh mt tri, nhng làm th nào bao gi bn s bit rng mt ngôi sao £ lâu b mt anh em sinh i ca bn là mt câu hi rt khó tr li." "It's not hard to find a list of stars rather like the sun, but how you would ever know that a star was your long-lost twin brother is a much harder question to answer.""
Space

+ - 'Walk' nearly six hours in outer space

Submitted by suckhoenct
suckhoenct (1941488) writes "Date 15/11, two Russian astronauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Skiripochka is already conducting a "space walk" lasted 5 hours 55 minutes.
The purpose of the trip was to collect soil samples to study outer space, while two astronauts also installed a multi-functional station and replace the current robot named Kontur other with a new robot more advanced external logistics module Zvezda.

Previously, robots Kontur posted to the International Space Station in 2003 to cater to the experiments of the DLR-German Space Agency, and Russia's experiments began in May 2008.

With a 51-year-old astronaut Yurchikhin, this was the "space walk" of his No. 5, also with young Skripchka astronauts, this is the first time. During the journey, the two astronauts wear a special outfit named Orlan-MK."
Biotech

Muscle Mice 116

Posted by Soulskill
from the hulk-squeek dept.
SilasMortimer writes "Researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder have accomplished that for which humankind has been desperate since the dawn of civilization: turning sad, injured regular mice into angry, beefed-up super-mice. Well, okay, there's no official word in the article about the rodents' emotional states, but certainly when stem cells were injected into mice with leg injuries, the muscle grew back... almost twice as big as it was before the injury [abstract, supplemental material (PDF)]. This has many exciting implications, from better healing after injuries to slowing down the aging process to a spike in the number of cases of Generalized Anxiety Disorder among cats. I, for one, refuse to perpetuate outdated memes. (But feel free to make up for the lack.)" If these mice are bred with those given previously discovered treatments to make them smarter and fearless, we might be in trouble.

Refreshed by a brief blackout, I got to my feet and went next door. -- Martin Amis, _Money_

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