>> "the cost of those goods will necessarily have to increase"
No! Why would they have to increase? I see this argument all the time regarding environmental regulations, paying workers a real living wage or anything else that might increase the price of production. It makes no sense though!!
Every person has a price they are willing to pay for something. Or... if it's something which is bought in quantity they have an amount they will buy at one price and an amount they will buy at another price. The more a company charges the less customers will buy but the more profit they will make per unit. Somewhere there is an equilibrium between those two factors where the business makes the most profit. Whatever the difference between that point and the production costs the company/executives/stock holders get to keep!
Any business manager with half a brain is going to seek that equilibrium with or without anti-polution regulation. The original price to produce the good has nothing to do with it! All an increase in cost of production does is decreases profit. You, I and every other consumer still have the same amount we are are willing to pay for the product so nothing changes there.
That is of course unless the price of production goes up so high that it excedes what the customers are willing to pay. Then the product is no longer profitable and the businesses will stop or reduce producing it one way or another. So.. yes, stopping polution could have an effect on consumers but only if the price increase is REALLY big or the product wasn't really that profitable in the first place. That's not a sure thing that we can say would happen with every product across the board! It's a complicated thing that would take a ton of research, a bit of luck and maybe some magical psychic powers to predict accurately.
I'm sure there are actualy tons of things that could be done cleaner, workers that could be paid better, etc... and the consumers would never see a price increase.