The key thing to remember is in science we build a model based on the evidence. The model does NOT become the actual thing it is modeling, but hopefully as time goes on it does converge. There have been many cases in history when the model was nice, but ultimately wrong in all conditions. Quantum mechanics is an excellent example of showing that newtonian mechanics model was incomplete and was in fact quite earth-shaking when it became accepted. Neither, however, are still 100% accurate, but they make pretty good models.
The big error is when we think the model is the same as the thing it models. Once this is the case, all meaningful discussions are shutdown. The earth is flat model was quite good and considered fact for many years until new evidence broke that model.