If I subscribe to magazine X, is that a public fact? If I purchase book Y, is that a public fact? If my car spends time each week in the parking lot of organization Z, is that a public fact? Library borrowings? Video rentals? Websites clicked on? The list of information about us that might be "shared" goes on and on.
What companies are selling is not just one's info in the phone book, but the association of that info with one's spending habits and one's behavior. I know at present time we have no right to control this associated info, but, yes, I believe we ought to have a right to control it.
One option I've heard is a property right, such as ownership (similar to copyright) of personal information. Joe "owns" his name &* address, and he'll loan a copy to Time Magazine for the purpose of delivering the periodical he has paid for. Any other use of Joe's information by Time Magazine is a violation, unless Joe & Time have come to some other agreement. This is very similar to copyright, so let's just call it personal copyright.
Copyright might be too blunt an instrument though, because remedies mostly involve (expensive) civil suits. A number of European governments passed legislation called Fair Information Practices. These laws basically say that personal information can only be used for the purpose for which it was given, and cannot be repurposed without consent of the person involved. Probably the governments involved have given themselves a loophole for national security, but I haven't investigated the details. This option reduces the cost to the individual, and makes it the job of the government to enforce the law. I see this as a benefit, though some may not.
Writing Fair Information Practices into law would probably explode the business models of the currently most successful tech companies in the USA, so maybe there's a way to ease into the laws and allow the tech companies time to adjust their business methods...
A poster above also posits the "10 minutes ago theory," which is likewise non-testable (what is there to prevent an all powerful being from planting memories in every brain; old photos in every album, and ancient dinosaur bones in the rocks?)
Science is about testable theories; in fact I would argue the word "theory" implies testability, so we'll call the non-testable ones "explanations". I'm not sure where to classify the non-testable explanations, philosophy is a reasonable guess. Perhaps the main point to be made with non-testable explanations is that they are so easy to invent.
In any case, the science classroom is the place for discussing methods for testing testable theories, with perhaps a quick glance at several non-testable explanations to see how non-testability operates.
I can recall a physics simulation I was involved in years ago that got differences of 10% depending on what hardware we ran it on. Turned out the Sun &SGI workstations used 64 bit FP, while the IBM box used some 128 bit or something like that. Took a while to track that one down...
When the facts appeared to be that the IRS was mostly investigating groups with conservative sounding names, it was valid to accuse the IRS of targeting a particular part of the political spectrum, and that would be very bad indeed.
But now we know the IRS was also investigating groups with names including words like "occupy" and "progressive." Apparently they were investigating both Jewish and Christian groups. Apparently the IRS was investigating broadly across the political spectrum to make sure groups applying for 501(c)(4) status were really non-political.
At this point, don't we need to start easing off our claims of targeting? At this point, don't we begin to notice that the claims of political use of the IRS might have been premature and off base? At this point, don't we begin to concede the IRS might, just possibly might, have been doing the job they were created to do?
If so, then the IRS wasn't "targeting" open source groups at all. Maybe its time to cool down a little.
AltiVec was Motorola's 1999 SIMD instructions & hardware, a response to the SIMD instructions & hardware released by AMD in 1998 (AMD called theirs 3DNow!). Intel also released SIMD instructions & hardware in 1999, called SSE. 3DNow!, AltiVec & SSE were all 128 bit wide pipes that could handle 4 single precision floating point operations simultaneously in parallel. Some of them may have also been able to do two double precision floats also (not AltiVec though), and they all did various integer ops in parallel too.
Xeon Phi is a chip that contains around 60 independent specialized Intel X86 cores, plus caches & ring busses for the cores to communicate with each other. The core count is inexact probably because Intel is figuring out the expected number of dead cores on a chip they can ship and still call it a complete chip. Each of the 60 or so specialized cores has a 512 bit wide pipe that will do 16 parallel single precision floating point operations or 8 parallel double precision floats. To call it a "pipe" means a new instruction & data can be issued every clock cycle, and there are a number of instructions "in flight" streaming down the pipeline, with results issuing out of the bottom of the pipe every clock. The pipe is a "fused multiply add" architecture (useful for vector dot products) so theoretically, every clock cycle, the CPU could issue 16 single precision mults and 16 single precision adds, a total of 32 flops per clock per core. Most high performance computing uses double precision, so cut that 32 in half, and multiply 16 flops per clock times 60 cores times about 1.2GHz to get about 1.2 DP teraflops (theoretical) per Xeon Phi chip. Actual flops will be considerably lower if the problem doesn't fit well in cache.
The bottom half of this article has a nice overview of Xeon Phi specs.
It's too bad Thinking Machines Incorporated never had a sticker policy, because the "Fat Tree" routing topology is straight out of TMI (the prior TMI topology, hypercube, didn't allow the customer as much choice to balance cores vs interconnect).
The Nvidia Titan GPU card, with a 7 billion transistor chip at its heart, draws an additional 236 watts when it goes from idle to full load. It's not hard to imagine 200 watts feeding into the GPU chip. Other GPU cards on that page draw even more power than the Titan. The Radeon HD 6950 CFX card drew 329 watts. It's not hard to imagine the chip at its heart drew over 220 watts.
If you want to cool a 220 watt CPU you might need water cooling, but it's by no means impossible.