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My apologies. The wiki article linked provides a decent primer (it also lists relevant specifications).
The gay marraige issue isn't a States rights issue no matter how much supporters wish it was. The federal government doesn't issue or dissolve marriage licenses it is completely the domain of the States. All the Federal courts have said is that if the states wish to have a legal institution of marriage that it must be compatible with the 14th amendment, and States which do not allow gays to marry do not meet that requirement.
The federal courts are not infringing on states rights, they are protecting individual rights granted by the U.S. Constitution from infringement by the States.
Easy, the lactose intolerant party takes the 16 cakes, trades 6 of them with cream to the other party for the 6 he has without cream and throws the remaining 5 cakes with cream in the garbage. Even if the other party doesn't trade the picker gets to eat 5 and the divider gets to eat 6, but none of them with cream.
Rigging piles always works to the advantage of the picker not the divider, that's why the system is fair.