Google Wave Federation.
https isn't bullet-proof, and doesn't do a thing on its own to mask the source and destination of traffic. It only encrypts the traffic itself.
Those are hardly anonymous, as they still reveal your location, MAC address and a whole lot more.
Further, the aim here isn't just source anonymity (where you are), but also destination anonymity (the site/location you are sending data TO).
This is correct. Tor has the ability to "anonymously" host tor-network-only sites and services.
And yes, Tor is pretty much just a multi-layered proxy (and is thus an "onion router"). Tor doesn't encrypt traffic on it's own at the source or destination, and you generally need to use Tor along with something like Privoxy (http://www.privoxy.org/) in order for it to be useful for surfing.
So... instead of using wifi and GPS for pinpoint accurate pinpoint awareness, Microsoft's answer is of course the less efficient and error prone one: nothing but image recognition. How will this perform in low light conditions or areas that haven't been previously photographed and added to the database?
I already have Wikitude on my Android phone and it's outstanding, so I don't see a breakthrough or any innovation here. Just another example of MS doing things the harder, slower, more error-prone way and calling it "innovation."
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