"Under the EU's state aid rules, national authorities cannot take measures allowing certain companies to pay less tax than they should if the tax rules of the Member State were applied in a fair and non-discriminatory way,"
It is not possible to specifically write one company into the law as exempt. Now it has been done by making laws such that they only apply to one company, but these practices are being sued now.
So no, it is not common place outside the US, and certainly not as easy.
But the voting in the US is dominated by companies anyways, it is a very different climate and understanding of democracy than anywhere else.