--what ship is "a shark with a freaking laser beam on its head"
Well, no, not really. This isn't even remotely the same technology path.
This involves using fairly conventional optics to make the best use of a person's existing visual capabilities, resulting in better (but still not "perfect") vision for those with certain types of eye damage. The innovation is overcoming the challenges to implant said optics in the eye.
Geordi's visor would use its own sensors to pull in a much wider spectrum of information than just visible light, bypassing his eyes (i.e. not trying to make use of his existing visual capabilities) to give him superhuman vision. The device would not be implanted in the eye and so would not use the innovations from the telescope.
The technological overlap is just about zero.
You must not have followed the movies then. The last two or three movies he had eye implants and not his visor. So the overlap is there it may not be the same thing but its on the same line.