Can we PLEASE stop acting like letting people keep their own money is somehow the same as the tax payers giving money to "the ev0l rich"???
Fine. If that's the case, would these "evil rich" do us all a favour and pay for the overwhelming publicly funded protection they get?
Your family is communist. The Amish are communists. However, having the whole country communist dos not work because we don't trust each other.
2: They store the same number of values as unsigned, it's just handling of those values and comparison operations differ. A signed and unsigned 32bit integers store 2^32 values.
3: Crypto algorithms do not operate numerically, thus 2147483647 * 100 will yield exactly the same result for uint32 and int32 as much as any crypto algorithm is concerned.
4: Therefore you send 2147483648 in binary form as 4 bytes = 0x80000000
As a server-side tool it has been getting taken over by Ruby/Rails, Python and the stuff mentioned in the OP.
I hope you are kidding here, because that is far from the case. Java is still the de-facto language for most server-side applications. RoR never outgrew it's hipster background. It has been 7 years since RoR had it's hype peak... The hype waned and RoR is still a rarity.
Java developers tend not to have issues with future proofing for new functions in interfaces.