Firstly, it's very important. You will be kicking yourself in the ass for the next 10 years when you have to keep going back to figure out all this "crap you will never need" that you just so happen to need every month.
Your problem seems to stem from a lack of understanding the basics according to your summary. Go back and really study them until you understand tehm; it will make life so much easier and it won't take long. Everyone these days are "good with computers" and if that is your selling point you can get hired for helpdesk support at minimum wage right now. If you want to be involved in any of the advanced CompSci areas though those fundamentals (advanced math is one of many) are absolutely necessary. The first time you can't figure out a simple algorithm because you don't understand the math behind it just stand up, shake the interviewers hand and go home, you already don't have the job.