As for federal holidays: there are 13 of them in our federal country (Bavaria). This year we have 9 of them which are not Saturday or Sunday. Our company also has a policy of "bridge days": if a holiday is on Tuesday then the company's building is closed on Monday. Same with a holiday on Thursday: the "bridge" day is Friday then. You have either to take a vacation or to spend accumulated overtime. This usually leads to an extra vacation week on Christmas. But such rule is not common.
If you absolutely want to work on the weekend or on a holiday, you have to jump over some major hurdles: you can't work alone and you have to notify the security and the management in advance. It is being frowned upon either.