If "extinction" is the level of catastrophe we're looking at, then most of these events won't meet that high a bar.
I mean, even after a major asteroid impact or even all out nuclear war there are going to be some survivors; maybe in unlikely places (nuclear submarines*, the ISS, Iceland, Antarctica). Likewise, almost every "natural" pathogen will leave resistant survivors even if there is no vaccine or cure. As long as enough are left to breed they could restart humankind (but perhaps at a very reduced level of technology/civilization). Whether or not they would ever be able to recover to our current state due to exhaustion of most easily exploited resources is another question but forever is a long time. If there are a sufficient number of survivors and IF there is a repository of knowledge that has survived (archived wikipedia perhaps?) it is probable that decades or centuries of technological development can be skipped (like going directly from wood burning furnaces to photovoltaics or wind power).
However, if there is an Intelligent enemy that is pursuing us, then our chances are much lower. A sentient A.I. that wanted to wipe out humanity could track down and eliminate those in shelter or get them when they come back out of hiding. I guess the long-living product of an intelligent enemy (like mindless "grey-goo" nanobots) could do the same thing by continuously and systematically breaking down the biosphere (and anything that re-enters it from space, the deep ocean or the polar regions). Then, unless we've recreated another biosphere somewhere else (is that why you're going to Mars, Elon Musk?) we're all dead. Of course, WE are our own intelligent enemy and a deliberate attempt to wipe ourselves out (super weapons, resilient viruses) or even big "oops!" ("gene-drive", mini-black holes, large asteroid mining near earth gone wrong), might readily succeed.
We have met the enemy and it is us.
*Okay I know that the crews of nuclear submarine are (nearly?) all men. But if there are any women left at least they'll have a good gene pool to dip from!