There's a lot of things at play.
Companies claim to care about your degree, but they don't. They have problems and they want it solved now. So practical skills counts more than that degree. If you can code, demonstrate it via code/github, you will get hired. You can learn and become great, but companies don't want to train/spend money on people. You have PhD, so via degree alone, you should be paid well enough, companies don't want to pay well enough, you are what they will call over qualified. Don't shoot for any job, narrow down, and do a quick catch up to whatever field you want to work in. If you want to do web dev for instance, focus on one language, php or python or ruby, learn a framework, build something. If you want to write C, learn how to do embedded programming for instance, if you want to do mobile, pick iOS or Android. Another way to go will be through a contracting/consulting company, they can charge more for you because of your PhD. They might not pay well, but at least you can get "real world" experience.