The neo-cons/tea partiers had nothing to do with Obama's budgeting woes. Between the House and Senate his proposed budget has only been able to get about 3 positive votes in the last few years. Most years the Senate under Reid simply refused to bring it to the floor for a vote it was so laughable. Only Republican pressure managed to get it to the floor where it managed to get 1 "yea" vote in 3 years.
Only the House actually bothered to do their duty and propose a budget each year. The Senate, once again under Reid;s leadership, generally just ignored all budgetary requirements and simple kept passing short term continuing resolutions which lead to the almost annual face off and threatened government shutdown.
The way the process is suppose to work is the President proposes a budget (usually after some discussion with leaders from both parties which was not going to happen under Obama since his own party members claim he never talks to them), both the House and Senate consider the Presidents proposals and write their own budgets (this can be anything from a direct copy of the Presidents or completely fresh). Then after both house pass a budget they two version go into reconciliation to see if a common ground can be found. While not legally binding, this finalized budget then gives way for appropriation bills to be passed in both houses to fund each budget concern.
For most of Obama's 2 terms things have not worked out that way. The presidents proposals have been seen as a joke by both parties in both houses, the Senate is fine with zero planning and the House passes their own budgets that had no real legal standing and since they know that, can effectively just be a Republican wish list with little or no Dem input.