Actually, it is more likely a combination of both, but not in the way you think. I can think of a number of effects at play
I think there is a key distinction between moral blame and possible choices.
The moral blame is 100% on the leadership. Yes, the oppressed could do something about it. They could muster exceptional courage in the face of tremendous psychological pressure. But that possibility, regardless of its probability of success, doesn't at all detract from the total blame that must be laid at the feet of the oppressors.
Yes, the battered wife could have done something, but she has none of the blame.