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Submission + - Computers learn to cooperate better than humans (

sciencehabit writes: For the first time, computers have taught themselves how to cooperate in games in which the objective is to reach the best possible outcome for all players. The feat is far harder than training artificial intelligence (AI) to triumph in a win-lose game such as chess or checkers, researchers say.

Such dependability could be a boon for algorithms that learn to make decisions for autonomous cars, drones, or even weapons on the battlefield. “[So far] cooperation [like this] hasn’t been a goal,” of most AI research, says Danica Kragic, a roboticist at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Instead, she adds, most work has focused on creating autonomous technologies that can surpass human abilities, from facial recognition to playing poker. “Machines need to do more than compete,” says Crandall, who adds that research in robotics—which does a better job of emphasizing cooperation—could serve as a model for AI going forward.

Submission + - Scientists turn mammalian cells into complex biocomputers (

sciencehabit writes: Computer hardware is getting a softer side. A research team has come up with a way of genetically engineering the DNA of mammalian cells to carry out complex computations, in effect turning the cells into biocomputers. The group hasn’t put those modified cells to work in useful ways yet, but down the road researchers hope the new programming techniques will help improve everything from cancer therapy to on-demand tissues that can replace worn-out body parts.

Submission + - In search for unseen dark matter, physicists turn to shadow realm (

sciencehabit writes: Scientists hunting unseen dark matter are looking deeper into the shadows. With searches for a favored dark matter candidate—weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)—coming up empty, physicists are now turning to the hypothetical “dark sector”: an entire shadow realm of hidden particles. This week, physicists will meet at the University of Maryland in College Park for a workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to mull ideas for a possible $10 million short-term experiment that would complement the agency’s current WIMP search and other dark-matter efforts. And many researchers believe DOE should focus on the dark sector. Whereas WIMPs would be a single massive particle tacked onto the standard model of known particles, the dark sector would consist of a slew of lighter particles and forces—such as a dark version of electromagnetism—with tenuous connections to known particles. To spot dark-sector particles, physicists will have to rethink their detection techniques, but the new experiment could be small and cheap, physicists say. Still, DOE officials warn that the $10 million isn’t a sure thing.

Submission + - Mars rover spots clouds shaped by gravity waves (

sciencehabit writes: NASA’s Curiosity rover has shot more than 500 movies of the clouds above Mars, including the first ground-based view of martian clouds shaped by gravity waves, researchers report. The shots are the best record made so far of a mysterious recurring belt of equatorial clouds known to influence the martian climate. Understanding these clouds will help inform estimates of ground ice depth and perhaps recurring slope lineae, potential flows of salty water on the surface, says John Moores, a planetary scientist at York University in Toronto, Canada, who led the study. “If we wish to understand the water story of Mars’s past,” Moores says, “we first need to [separate out] contributions from the present-day water cycle.”

Submission + - Researchers teach self-driving cars to 'see' better at night (

sciencehabit writes: Today’s autonomous cars can already harness the power of artificial intelligence (AI) software to drive from Los Angeles, California, to New York City without any human input, as long as it’s a sunny day. They still struggle to spot a stop sign in the rain after all. Now, researchers say they are on the cusp of giving self-driving cars the ability to read road signs in all sorts of weather and light conditions, an AI advance that brings the vehicles one step closer to being safe enough for everyday people to operate.

Submission + - Biological version of malware reverses antibiotic resistance in TB (

sciencehabit writes: As the mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis has frighteningly become resistant to one drug after another, scientists for years have searched for new compounds that will stop the pathogen before it kills. Now, in a novel twist, researchers have found a way to recruit help from none other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis itself to make the deadly pathogen susceptible to an existing tuberculosis (TB) drug that it has learned to dodge. It's like a biological version of “malware,” says co–senior author Benoit Déprez of the University of Lille in France. In effect, he says, the approach activates a previously silent system that, when coupled with a TB drug, instructs the bacteria to self-destruct.

Submission + - Giving feelings to artificial beings could backfire, study suggests (

sciencehabit writes: In the recent movie Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, the face of the character Grand Moff Tarkin was constructed digitally, as the actor who had originally played him had died. Some who knew about the computer trickery saw his appearance as slightly unnatural, leading to a sense of unease. Their discomfort demonstrates what the Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori referred to in 1970 as the “uncanny valley”: Our affinity toward robots and animations increases as they physically appear more humanlike, except for a large dip where they are almost but not quite there.

But what happens when a character’s appearance remains the same, but observers think its mind has become more humanlike? New research reveals that this, too, unnerves people, a finding that could have possible implications for a range of human-computer interactions. The researchers are calling the phenomenon the “uncanny valley of the mind.”

Submission + - 'Supersteel' modeled on human bone is resistant to cracks (

sciencehabit writes: Metallurgists have followed nature’s lead, creating steel with a structure similar to human bone. In addition to harboring a layered structure that tends to keep cracks from spreading beyond the layers where they start, the material has different alloy components with different degrees of hardness. That way if a crack does begin to form, it has to follow a different path to propagate, which reduces the chance a small crack will grow. Also, some areas within the steel are more flexible than others, which can help absorb the energy of repeated stresses applied to the steel and even close up cracks after they occur. That could allow engineers to use the material to build everything from bridges to spacecraft that are less susceptible to catastrophic failure, which can happen when a tiny crack becomes a full-blown fracture.

Submission + - Stunning close-up of Saturn's moon, Pan, reveals a space empanada (

sciencehabit writes: Astronomers have long known that Pan, one of Saturn’s innermost moons, has an odd look. Based on images taken from a distance, researchers have said it looks like a walnut or a flying saucer. But now, NASA’s Cassini probe has delivered stunning close-ups of the 35-kilometer-wide icy moon, and it might be better called a pan-fried dumpling or an empanada.

Submission + - Quantum computer learns to 'see' trees (

sciencehabit writes: Scientists have trained a quantum computer to recognize trees. That may not seem like a big deal, but the result means that researchers are a step closer to using such computers for complicated machine learning problems like pattern recognition and computer vision. The team fed hundreds of NASA satellite images of California into the D-Wave 2X processor, and asked the computer to consider dozens of features–hue, saturation, even light reflectance–to determine whether clumps of pixels were trees as opposed to roads, buildings, or rivers. They then told the computer whether its classifications were right or wrong so that the computer could learn from its mistakes, tweaking the formula it uses to determine whether something is a tree. After it was trained, the D-Wave was 90% accurate in recognizing trees in aerial photographs of Mill Valley, California. The results demonstrate how scientists can program quantum computers to “look” at and analyze images, and opens up the possibility of using them to solve other complex problems that require heavy data crunching.

Submission + - Scientists take first peek inside the inner workings of neural networks (

sciencehabit writes: Last month, Facebook announced software that could simply look at a photo and tell, for example, whether it was a picture of a cat or a dog. A related program identifies cancerous skin lesions as well as trained dermatologists can. Both technologies are based on neural networks, sophisticated computer algorithms at the cutting edge of artificial intelligence (AI)—but even their developers aren’t sure exactly how they work. Now, researchers have found a way to "look" at neural networks in action and see how they draw conclusions.

Submission + - Horse lawsuit may have sparked USDA scrubbing of animal records (

sciencehabit writes: A lawsuit over alleged cruelty to a special breed of horse appears to have prompted the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) move last week to remove thousands of reports and documents relating to animal welfare from its website. The scrubbing has outraged animal welfare advocates — and made strange bedfellows of groups that oppose and support scientific research involving animals, with both sides condemning USDA’s actions. It appears, however, that the agency’s decision had little—if anything—to do with animal research.

Submission + - Is dark matter made of black holes? (

sciencehabit writes: Could dark matter consist of primordial black holes, as numerous as the stars? It’s an old, improbable idea, but it made a Lazarus-like comeback a year ago, when the discovery of gravitational waves suggested that the cosmos abounds with unexpectedly heavy black holes. With decades-long searches failing to find the hypothetical dark matter particles that theorists have favored, physicists are turning to more radical ways of explaining the universe’s missing mass.

Submission + - LIGO doesn't just detect gravitational waves. It makes them, too (

sciencehabit writes: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is not only the most sensitive detector of ripples in spacetime. It also happens to be the world's best producer of gravitational waves, a team of physicists now calculates. Although these waves are far too feeble to detect directly, the researchers say, the radiation in principle could be used to try to detect weird quantum mechanical effects among large objects.

Submission + - Deep probe of antimatter puts Einstein's special relativity to the test (

sciencehabit writes: After decades of effort, physicists have probed the inner working of atoms of antihydrogen—the antimatter version of hydrogen—by measuring for the first time a particular wavelength of light that they absorb. The advance opens the way to precisely comparing hydrogen and antihydrogen and, oddly, testing the special theory of relativity—Albert Einstein’s 111-year-old theory of how space and time appear to observers moving relative to one another, which, among other things, says that nothing can move faster than light.

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