Any app on affected devices that requests a single android.permission.INTERNET (which is normal for any app that connects to the web or shows ads) can get its hands on:
- the list of user accounts, including email addresses and sync status for each last known network and GPS locations and a limited previous history of locations
- phone numbers from the phone log SMS data, including phone numbers and encoded text (not sure yet if it's possible to decode it, but very likely)
- system logs (both kernel/dmesg and app/logcat), which includes everything your running apps do and is likely to include email addresses, phone numbers, and other private info
Life is a whim of several billion cells to be you for a while.